Google reCAPTCHA Privacy and Terms of Service links not Working in Internet Explorer 11 (Explained)

I’m sharing this story as it is something you might encounter when using Internet Explorer 11 with Google’s CAPTCHA service (code). 

This came up in UAT testing recently for a web product I work on so I thought I would share.  It might save you some time explaining to your customers about cross browser compatibility testing.

First off, Google has a free service for trying to detect bots on your site called “CAPTCHA”. CAPTCHA is an acronym for “Completely Automated Public Turing Test to tell Computer and Humans Apart”.

Google’s free CAPTCHA service called reCAPTCHA requires developers to register your website to get an API key which you will use along with some code to call the API from your site.  Pretty cool stuff, right?

I’m really simplifying this but to render the reCAPTCHA you would insert their code snippet. Make sure the code is loading from a a page using the HTTPS protocol or else it might not work.

<html>
  <head>
    <title>reCAPTCHA demo: Simple page</title>
     <script src="https://www.google.com/recaptcha/api.js" async defer></script>
  </head>
  <body>
    <form action="?" method="POST">
      <div class="g-recaptcha" data-sitekey="your_site_key"></div>
      <br/>
      <input type="submit" value="Submit">
    </form>
  </body>
</html>

Once the reCAPTCHA is loading on the page, it will be loading its contents in an IFRAME. This is really important to our story!

There are links in the Google CAPTCHA that point to a privacy page and terms of service page on the Google.com domain which both have a “target =_blank” attribute on the link. This means these links should open in new windows or tab depending on other pressed keys.

The links are working just fine in Chrome and Firefox and opening in new windows but not IE 11.

What is the issue here?

It could have been earlier than IE 11 but, Microsoft implemented a security feature to restrict links loading in IFRAMES from linking out to a domain other than the one it originally loaded from.

The CAPTCHA code is loading from your WhatEverDomain.com but all the links in the IFRAME are pointing to the Google.com domain are now all disabled.

References:

https://github.com/google/recaptcha/issues/191

https://answers.microsoft.com/en-us/ie/forum/ie11-iewindows_10/links-that-open-in-new-browser-tabs-dont-work-on/55e7b147-bb66-4b4a-b88d-3533166a059a

Here is a video on how to install Google reCAPTCHA for your website. Good luck and happy coding!

Video: Google reCapthca 2.0

Apache Web Server: Blocking Countries By IP Range using .htaccess

Blocking Countries by IP Address on Your Apache Web Server

Before I show you how, the more important item to address is how do we know what IP addresses go to a specific country or region?

There are web sites like CountryIPblocks.net that help you create .htaccess entries for blocking countries and regions by IP address ranges.

Screenshot below show me building a deny list for Asia for example.

Copy the IP ranges to your .htaccess file, save then reset the Apache server service.

>service apache2 restart

Welcome to the New World of Cyber Warfare

Below is a screenshot from CountryIPblocks.net providing a list of IPs to block Iranian web traffic. If a threat actor is actively engaged in sneaky sneaky bad stuff then using this site will help you identify IP ranges to block.

Securing Your WordPress Blog from xmlrpc.php Attacks

Today marks my first week of owning a WordPress blog.

I figured a week should be ample enough time to have the web server run and let the bad guys and bots take a swing at it. A review of my Apache web server log should show me what type of WordPress hacks would be attempted first.

My site is really new so I don’ t expect a lot of traffic. I downloaded my Apache web server log and noticed that apparently I had a lot of traffic for a brand new site that had not yet been promoted.

Once I downloaded and looked through the web server log file, a pattern quickly appeared. Lots of requests for a specific file called xmlrpc.php.

What the hell is xmlrpc.php?

I had found this in depth article about the xmlrpc file. For a more in-depth dive please check it out.

https://www.hostinger.com/tutorials/xmlrpc-wordpress

The super short version is, that XML-RPC is a WordPress feature enabling transmission of XML messages between systems using HTTP as the transport mechanism.

WordPress being an open system, occasionally needs to communicate with other systems, xmlrpc.php is supposed to handle that job.

My understanding is that xmlrpc.php is being deprecated in future versions of WordPress so why leave an artifact that can be used to enable a brute force attack on your site. Get rid of it ASAP!

Block Access to the xmlrpc.php file using Apache’s .htaccess file

.htaccess files are used by Apache web servers to allow or deny access to resources on your web site. We can allow or deny based on things like IP addresses or file names.

Your WordPress installation on Apache has a .htaccess file included by default.

You won’t see it using the >ls command as files beginning with a dot are hidden files. You can’t see it in the directory but we can open it.

In the screenshot below, I’ve opened the default WordPress .htaccess file using the nano text editor after connecting via SSH using PuTTY.

Setting an Access Restriction to the xmlrpc.php file using .htaccess file

Blocking access to the xmlrpc.php file to all users can be done using an entry in the .htaccess file that the Apache web server uses to grant or deny access to web resources.

When a request comes in to the Apache web server for the xmlrpc.php file, the server will apply this access rule which states that only local request will be granted and all others will be denied.

Navigate to your WordPress root folder. Mine was in: /var/www/html

I opened the .htaccess file by entering the command >sudo nano .htaccess

In the screenshot below, you see the special entry for <Files xmlrpc.php>.

.htaccess code for Denying Access to xmlprc.php

#Block WordPress xmlrpc.php requests
<Files xmlrpc.php>
Order deny,allow
deny from all
</Files>

One More Thing: Check Your Apache Config AllowOverride Setting

Of course I did not realize for 24 hours that my .htaccess settings were not actually working. There was one more thing we had to configure on the Apache web server.

Double check your Apache2.conf file to see if the AllowOverride setting is set to All for you WordPress public html directory. Mine was in the /var/www directory.

My AllowOverride setting was set to None by default as you can see the /srv/ is still set to None. Your installation maybe different.

SEO: Google Sitemaps not Worth the Effort

In his Oct 2, 2019 blog article, SEO Round Table’s Gary Schwartz has reported that Google’s John Mueller posted on Reddit that he agrees, that HTML sitemaps are not worthwhile for SEO purposes.

See Gary’s article here: https://www.seroundtable.com/google-html-sitemaps-seo-28312.html

I’ve been in SEO for as long as SEO has existed and I’ll agree with John Mueller on this issue.

In my opinion, web site developers should be more focused on simplification of their site’s navigation. If it is simple, it is good for people and for search engine bots.

I’ve spent time and money in the past creating very large site maps using tools like Screaming Frog software to index and create sitemaps of my site. Screaming Frog’s prices eventually increased too much over a couple of years so I stopped using them and briefly considered writing my own tools to do the same thing.

In the end, I used my time to focus on design improvement including a major simplification in the U/I which dramatically reduced the amount of links per page making it easier for people to navigate as well as Google, Bing and Yahoo search engine bots.

Don’t waste your time with sitemaps, use your time more wisely on design improvements.

What is the Maximum Script Timeout Setting for Classic ASP on IIS?

This is a re-post of a popular blog article from my old Blogger blog that was originally posted back in 2012.

I was scripting in old school ASP version 3.0 on IIS6 this week and had a script that needed a long time to run and kept timing out.

So I asked the question… What is the maximum script timeout setting for ASP on IIS?

After a lot of digging, I found out the answer.

The maximum value for ScriptTimeout is 2^32-1, or 2147483647.

If you try to set it to 2147483648 or higher, you will get the following error:
Microsoft VBScript runtime (0x800A0006)
Overflow: ‘server.scripttimeout’

Normally you would script it out like this.

<%
    Server.ScriptTimeout = 180
%>

Now with the maximum value, it looks like this.
 <%
    Server.ScriptTimeout = 2147483647
%>

The real solution was that my database was not performing at its best.  So needed to create additional indexes on more fields which increased the speed of the script.

 Hope this helps somebody out.

Happy coding!

SQL – How to Update Records in a Table Using a Loop and Cursor

This is a re-post of one of my most popular blog post from my old Blogger blog.

I had a challenge yesterday that I would normally solve using some Visual Basic code but had to do it in pure SQL on a SQL 2005 server.

THE CHALLENGE:
Loop through all the records in a table and then update the table based on some logic or condition.

THE SOLUTION:

Using a SQL Cursor, I was able to loop through all the records in a table and then run an SQL update command for certain records that matched a particular criteria.

Example Code: Update table with SQL Cursor and While Loop

DECLARE @myEmpID int
DECLARE MyCursor CURSOR FOR
SELECT DISTINCT  EmployeeID FROM Employees WHERE Company=64

OPEN myCursor
--Read the initial emploee id value from the cursor
FETCH NEXT FROM myCursor
INTO @myEmpID
WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN
    --Update goes here 
    UPDATE Employees 
    SET [Status] = 'T'
    WHERE EmployeeID = @myEmpID AND Company=54
    FETCH NEXT FROM MyCursor
    INTO @myEmpID
END
CLOSE MyCursor

Retaining Leading Zeros When Mail Merging from Excel to Word

Retaining Leading Zeros When Mail Merging from Excel to Word

Problem:

I had created an Excel spreadsheet that was being used as a data source for a Microsoft Word mail merge but the Excel document had a field that used field formatting to add leading zeros to the numbers but the numbers were not being imported in to the mail merge document with the leading zeros.

Today’s Challenge?

Retaining leading zeros on a numeric field when using Microsoft Word Mail Merge with an Excel source document.

The Solution

In Microsoft Word…

Change the mail merge field to read…

{ Mergefield ZipCode \# “00000” }

Change “ZipCode” to whatever numeric field you are trying to import / merge.

Installing Virtualbox Guest Additions on Kali Linux: When nothing goes right and how I fixed it

Kali Linux Installation Problems

I’m getting various errors when installing Virtualbox Guest Additions on a Kali Linux VM.

Resources that helped:

Online articles and resources:
– https://askubuntu.com/questions/80341/unable-to-mount-virtualbox-guest-additions-as-a-guest-win7-host
– https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KAWRNjKpEd0
https://askubuntu.com/questions/75709/how-do-i-install-kernel-header-files
– https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/328655/cant-install-linux-headers-kali-linux
– https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SOEYLMmfxKk

Below are the specific steps extracted from the command line history below which contains all of my troubleshooting session. I did fix it so if you follow along you can see my steps and the output from them. Hope this helps!

Steps:
1. Copy to desktop copy of VBoxLinuxAdditions.run from Guest Additions CD
2. run chmod +x ./VBoxLinusAdditions.run on Desktop copy
3. Attempt to fix headers on recommendation by upgrading of Linux components using: # apt update -y && apt upgrade -y && ajpt dist-upgrade
4. Realize that last step didn’t fix issue and that specific issue header module is corrupt or missing.
5. Find out what header modules are available using: apt-cache search linux-headers
6. Selected and installed module using:  apt-get install linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-all-amd64
7. Run ./VBoxLinuxAdditions.run
8. Success

Linux Command Line of Trial and Error w/ Fix

root@kali:~# ./VBoxLinuxAdditions.run
Verifying archive integrity... All good.
Uncompressing VirtualBox 5.2.2 Guest Additions for Linux........
VirtualBox Guest Additions installer
Removing installed version 5.2.2 of VirtualBox Guest Additions...
Copying additional installer modules ...
Installing additional modules ...
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Building the VirtualBox Guest Additions kernel modules.
This system is currently not set up to build kernel modules.
Please install the Linux kernel "header" files matching the current kernel
for adding new hardware support to the system.
The distribution packages containing the headers are probably:
    linux-headers-amd64 linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-amd64
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Starting.
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Building the VirtualBox Guest Additions kernel modules.
This system is currently not set up to build kernel modules.
Please install the Linux kernel "header" files matching the current kernel
for adding new hardware support to the system.
The distribution packages containing the headers are probably:
    linux-headers-amd64 linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-amd64
root@kali:~# clear

root@kali:~# apt update -y && apt upgrade -y && ajpt dist-upgrade
Get:2 https://packages.microsoft.com/repos/vscode stable InRelease [2,802 B]
Get:1 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling InRelease [30.5 kB]    
Get:3 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 Packages [15.6 MB]
Get:4 https://packages.microsoft.com/repos/vscode stable/main amd64 Packages [33.4 kB]
Get:5 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/non-free amd64 Packages [166 kB]
Get:6 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/contrib amd64 Packages [113 kB]
Fetched 16.0 MB in 4s (3,495 kB/s)                   
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
86 packages can be upgraded. Run 'apt list --upgradable' to see them.
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
Calculating upgrade... Done
The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:
  libarmadillo7 libxerces-c3.1
Use 'apt autoremove' to remove them.
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  libarmadillo8 libconfig-inifiles-perl libxerces-c3.2 python-jwt
The following packages will be upgraded:
  aircrack-ng cabextract cgpt console-setup console-setup-linux exim4-base
  exim4-config exim4-daemon-light flasm fontconfig fontconfig-config
  fonts-noto-mono gdal-bin gdal-data glusterfs-common iproute2 iso-codes
  keyboard-configuration libaprutil1 libaprutil1-dbd-sqlite3 libaprutil1-ldap
  libc-bin libc-dev-bin libc-l10n libc6 libc6-dbg libc6-dev
  libdbd-sqlite3-perl libdevel-partialdump-perl libdevel-stacktrace-perl
  libfcgi-bin libfcgi0ldbl libfontconfig1 libgcab-1.0-0 libgdal20 libkeyutils1
  libmailutils5 libmariadbclient18 libmysofa0 libopenmpt0 liborc-0.4-0
  libsmbclient libtevent0 libwbclient0 libwebp6 libwebpdemux2 libwebpmux3
  libwww-perl locales locales-all mailutils mailutils-common man-db
  mariadb-client-10.1 mariadb-client-core-10.1 mariadb-common
  mariadb-server-10.1 mariadb-server-core-10.1 metasploit-framework
  multiarch-support nano python-cairo python-construct python-cryptography
  python-gdal python-gi python-gobject python-samba python3-cairo
  python3-construct python3-cryptography python3-gi python3-gi-cairo
  python3-pyatspi samba samba-common samba-common-bin samba-dsdb-modules
  samba-libs samba-vfs-modules smbclient socat vboot-kernel-utils vboot-utils
  winexe xauth
86 upgraded, 4 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 173 MB/177 MB of archives.
After this operation, 3,631 kB disk space will be freed.
Get:1 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libc-l10n all 2.25-2 [844 kB]
Get:2 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 locales all 2.25-2 [3,287 kB]
Get:3 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 locales-all amd64 2.25-2 [3,603 kB]
Get:4 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libc6 amd64 2.25-2 [2,727 kB]
Get:5 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libc-bin amd64 2.25-2 [788 kB]
Get:6 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libc6-dbg amd64 2.25-2 [9,365 kB]
Get:7 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libc-dev-bin amd64 2.25-2 [262 kB]
Get:8 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libc6-dev amd64 2.25-2 [2,431 kB]
Get:9 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 man-db amd64 2.7.6.1-4 [1,047 kB]
Get:10 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 console-setup-linux all 1.171 [982 kB]
Get:11 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 console-setup all 1.171 [103 kB]
Get:12 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 keyboard-configuration all 1.171 [401 kB]
Get:13 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 fontconfig-config all 2.12.6-0.1 [304 kB]
Get:14 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libfontconfig1 amd64 2.12.6-0.1 [368 kB]
Get:15 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 fontconfig amd64 2.12.6-0.1 [439 kB]
Get:16 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 samba-vfs-modules amd64 2:4.7.3+dfsg-1 [402 kB]
Get:17 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 samba-dsdb-modules amd64 2:4.7.3+dfsg-1 [342 kB]
Get:18 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 samba amd64 2:4.7.3+dfsg-1 [954 kB]
Get:19 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 samba-common-bin amd64 2:4.7.3+dfsg-1 [615 kB]
Get:20 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 smbclient amd64 2:4.7.3+dfsg-1 [448 kB]
Get:21 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libsmbclient amd64 2:4.7.3+dfsg-1 [153 kB]
Get:22 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 winexe amd64 1.1~20140107-0kali6+b3 [32.4 kB]
Get:23 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 python-samba amd64 2:4.7.3+dfsg-1 [2,018 kB]
Get:24 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 samba-libs amd64 2:4.7.3+dfsg-1 [5,402 kB]
Get:25 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libwbclient0 amd64 2:4.7.3+dfsg-1 [127 kB]
Get:26 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 samba-common all 2:4.7.3+dfsg-1 [162 kB]
Get:27 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 mariadb-common all 1:10.1.29-6 [28.2 kB]
Get:28 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 mariadb-client-core-10.1 amd64 1:10.1.29-6 [4,764 kB]
Get:29 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libconfig-inifiles-perl all 2.94-1 [53.4 kB]
Get:30 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 mariadb-server-10.1 amd64 1:10.1.29-6 [5,050 kB]
Get:31 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 mariadb-client-10.1 amd64 1:10.1.29-6 [5,649 kB]
Get:32 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 mariadb-server-core-10.1 amd64 1:10.1.29-6 [4,920 kB]
Get:33 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 multiarch-support amd64 2.25-2 [204 kB]
Get:34 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 nano amd64 2.9.0-1 [512 kB]
Get:35 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libkeyutils1 amd64 1.5.9-9.2 [12.9 kB]
Get:36 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 aircrack-ng amd64 1:1.2-0~rc4-4 [2,722 kB]
Get:37 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 cabextract amd64 1.6-1.1 [31.5 kB]
Get:38 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 cgpt amd64 0~R63-10032.B-2 [30.3 kB]
Get:39 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 exim4-config all 4.89-11 [317 kB]
Get:40 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 exim4-base amd64 4.89-11 [1,093 kB]
Get:41 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 exim4-daemon-light amd64 4.89-11 [546 kB]
Get:42 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 flasm amd64 1.62-10 [90.2 kB]
Get:43 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 gdal-data all 2.2.2+dfsg-2 [566 kB]
Get:44 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libarmadillo8 amd64 1:8.200.2+dfsg-1 [82.3 kB]
Get:45 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libmariadbclient18 amd64 1:10.1.29-6 [737 kB]
Get:46 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libwebp6 amd64 0.6.0-4 [254 kB]
Get:47 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libxerces-c3.2 amd64 3.2.0+debian-2 [863 kB]
Get:48 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libgdal20 amd64 2.2.2+dfsg-2+b3 [5,318 kB]
Get:49 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 gdal-bin amd64 2.2.2+dfsg-2+b3 [373 kB]
Get:50 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 python-jwt all 1.5.3+ds1-1 [18.4 kB]
Get:51 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 glusterfs-common amd64 3.12.3-1 [5,188 kB]
Get:52 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 iso-codes all 3.77-1 [2,398 kB]
Get:53 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libaprutil1-ldap amd64 1.6.1-1 [16.3 kB]
Get:54 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libaprutil1-dbd-sqlite3 amd64 1.6.1-1 [18.2 kB]
Get:55 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libaprutil1 amd64 1.6.1-1 [91.1 kB]
Get:56 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libdbd-sqlite3-perl amd64 1.55~04-1 [166 kB]
Get:57 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libdevel-partialdump-perl all 0.20-1 [15.3 kB]
Get:58 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libdevel-stacktrace-perl all 2.0300-1 [28.0 kB]
Get:59 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libfcgi-bin amd64 2.4.0-10 [12.4 kB]
Get:60 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libfcgi0ldbl amd64 2.4.0-10 [155 kB]
Get:61 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libgcab-1.0-0 amd64 0.7-5 [28.8 kB]
Get:62 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 mailutils amd64 1:3.4-1 [581 kB]
Get:63 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libmailutils5 amd64 1:3.4-1 [873 kB]
Get:64 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 mailutils-common all 1:3.4-1 [678 kB]
Get:65 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libmysofa0 amd64 0.6~dfsg0-2 [37.9 kB]
Get:66 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libopenmpt0 amd64 0.3.3-1 [572 kB]
Get:67 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 liborc-0.4-0 amd64 1:0.4.28-1 [141 kB]
Get:68 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libwebpdemux2 amd64 0.6.0-4 [81.7 kB]
Get:69 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libwebpmux3 amd64 0.6.0-4 [91.8 kB]
Get:70 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 libwww-perl all 6.29-1 [186 kB]
Get:71 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 metasploit-framework amd64 4.16.19-0kali1 [88.8 MB]
Get:72 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 python-gdal amd64 2.2.2+dfsg-2+b3 [755 kB]
Get:73 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 python3-pyatspi all 2.26.0+dfsg-1 [34.6 kB]
Get:74 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 vboot-kernel-utils amd64 0~R63-10032.B-2 [268 kB]
Get:75 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 vboot-utils amd64 0~R63-10032.B-2 [121 kB]
Get:76 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 xauth amd64 1:1.0.10-1 [40.3 kB]
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Setting up libwebpdemux2:amd64 (0.6.0-4) ...
Setting up samba-common-bin (2:4.7.3+dfsg-1) ...
Setting up mariadb-server-10.1 (1:10.1.29-6) ...
mariadb.service is a disabled or a static unit, not starting it.
Setting up gdal-bin (2.2.2+dfsg-2+b3) ...
Setting up samba-dsdb-modules (2:4.7.3+dfsg-1) ...
Setting up fontconfig (2.12.6-0.1) ...
Regenerating fonts cache... done.
Setting up samba (2:4.7.3+dfsg-1) ...
Samba is not being run as an AD Domain Controller.
Please ignore the following error about deb-systemd-helper not finding samba-ad-dc.service.
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.25-2) ...
Processing triggers for menu (2.1.47+b1) ...
bash: ajpt: command not found
root@kali:~# ./VBoxLinuxAdditions.run
Verifying archive integrity... All good.
Uncompressing VirtualBox 5.2.2 Guest Additions for Linux........
VirtualBox Guest Additions installer
Removing installed version 5.2.2 of VirtualBox Guest Additions...
Copying additional installer modules ...
Installing additional modules ...
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Building the VirtualBox Guest Additions kernel modules.
This system is currently not set up to build kernel modules.
Please install the Linux kernel "header" files matching the current kernel
for adding new hardware support to the system.
The distribution packages containing the headers are probably:
    linux-headers-amd64 linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-amd64
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Starting.
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Building the VirtualBox Guest Additions kernel modules.
This system is currently not set up to build kernel modules.
Please install the Linux kernel "header" files matching the current kernel
for adding new hardware support to the system.
The distribution packages containing the headers are probably:
    linux-headers-amd64 linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-amd64
root@kali:~# apt -get linux-headers-4.13.0-kali-amd64
E: Command line option 'g' [from -get] is not understood in combination with the other options.
root@kali:~# apt-get install linux-headers-4.13.0-kali-amd64
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
E: Unable to locate package linux-headers-4.13.0-kali-amd64
E: Couldn't find any package by glob 'linux-headers-4.13.0-kali-amd64'
E: Couldn't find any package by regex 'linux-headers-4.13.0-kali-amd64'
root@kali:~# apt-get search linux-headers
E: Invalid operation search
root@kali:~# apt-cache search linux-headers
aufs-dkms - DKMS files to build and install aufs
linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-all - All header files for Linux 4.13 (meta-package)
linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-all-amd64 - All header files for Linux 4.13 (meta-package)
linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-amd64 - Header files for Linux 4.13.0-kali1-amd64
linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-common - Common header files for Linux 4.13.0-kali1
linux-headers-amd64 - Header files for Linux amd64 configuration (meta-package)
linux-libc-dev-alpha-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-arm64-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-armel-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-armhf-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-hppa-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-m68k-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-mips-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-mips64-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-mips64el-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-mips64r6-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-mips64r6el-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-mipsel-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-mipsn32-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-mipsn32el-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-mipsn32r6-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-mipsn32r6el-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-mipsr6-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-mipsr6el-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-powerpc-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-powerpcspe-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-ppc64-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-ppc64el-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-s390x-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-sh4-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
linux-libc-dev-sparc64-cross - Linux Kernel Headers for development (for cross-compiling)
root@kali:~# apt-get install linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-all-amd64
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:
  libarmadillo7 libxerces-c3.1
Use 'apt autoremove' to remove them.
The following additional packages will be installed:
  cpp-6 gcc-6 linux-compiler-gcc-6-x86 linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-amd64
  linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-common linux-kbuild-4.13
Suggested packages:
  gcc-6-locales gcc-6-multilib gcc-6-doc libgcc1-dbg libgomp1-dbg libitm1-dbg
  libatomic1-dbg libasan3-dbg liblsan0-dbg libtsan0-dbg libubsan0-dbg
  libcilkrts5-dbg libmpx2-dbg libquadmath0-dbg
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  cpp-6 gcc-6 linux-compiler-gcc-6-x86 linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-all-amd64
  linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-amd64 linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-common
  linux-kbuild-4.13
0 upgraded, 7 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 23.0 MB of archives.
After this operation, 101 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y
Get:1 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 cpp-6 amd64 6.4.0-10 [6,354 kB]
Get:2 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 gcc-6 amd64 6.4.0-10 [6,718 kB]
Get:3 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 linux-compiler-gcc-6-x86 amd64 4.13.13-1kali1 [496 kB]
Get:4 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-common all 4.13.13-1kali1 [7,756 kB]
Get:5 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 linux-kbuild-4.13 amd64 4.13.13-1kali1 [693 kB]
Get:6 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-amd64 amd64 4.13.13-1kali1 [463 kB]
Get:7 http://mirrors.ocf.berkeley.edu/kali kali-rolling/main amd64 linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-all-amd64 amd64 4.13.13-1kali1 [496 kB]
Fetched 23.0 MB in 3s (6,388 kB/s)                        
Selecting previously unselected package cpp-6.
(Reading database ... 327473 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../0-cpp-6_6.4.0-10_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking cpp-6 (6.4.0-10) ...
Selecting previously unselected package gcc-6.
Preparing to unpack .../1-gcc-6_6.4.0-10_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking gcc-6 (6.4.0-10) ...
Selecting previously unselected package linux-compiler-gcc-6-x86.
Preparing to unpack .../2-linux-compiler-gcc-6-x86_4.13.13-1kali1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking linux-compiler-gcc-6-x86 (4.13.13-1kali1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-common.
Preparing to unpack .../3-linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-common_4.13.13-1kali1_all.deb ...
Unpacking linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-common (4.13.13-1kali1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package linux-kbuild-4.13.
Preparing to unpack .../4-linux-kbuild-4.13_4.13.13-1kali1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking linux-kbuild-4.13 (4.13.13-1kali1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-amd64.
Preparing to unpack .../5-linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-amd64_4.13.13-1kali1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-amd64 (4.13.13-1kali1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-all-amd64.
Preparing to unpack .../6-linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-all-amd64_4.13.13-1kali1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-all-amd64 (4.13.13-1kali1) ...
Setting up linux-kbuild-4.13 (4.13.13-1kali1) ...
Setting up linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-common (4.13.13-1kali1) ...
Processing triggers for man-db (2.7.6.1-4) ...
Setting up cpp-6 (6.4.0-10) ...
Setting up gcc-6 (6.4.0-10) ...
Setting up linux-compiler-gcc-6-x86 (4.13.13-1kali1) ...
Setting up linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-amd64 (4.13.13-1kali1) ...
Setting up linux-headers-4.13.0-kali1-all-amd64 (4.13.13-1kali1) ...
root@kali:~# ./VBoxLinuxAdditions.run
Verifying archive integrity... All good.
Uncompressing VirtualBox 5.2.2 Guest Additions for Linux........
VirtualBox Guest Additions installer
Removing installed version 5.2.2 of VirtualBox Guest Additions...
Copying additional installer modules ...
Installing additional modules ...
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Building the VirtualBox Guest Additions kernel modules.
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Starting.
root@kali:~# 

Raspberry Pi: Fixing UK Keyboard Settings

Raspberry Pi: “Can’t open file to write”

Just got my first Raspberry Pi and was excited to get it booted up.  

First problem:  The keyboard is set to UK.
Solution: Edit the keyboard config file > etc\default\keyboard

Second problem: Can’t edit the keyboard file.
Solution: Start the GUI using the command line: sudo startx

Hope this helps!

Android Development Tips: Eclipse Error Failed to allocate memory: 8

Background

I not new to programming but I am new to developing for Android mobile platforms so I was excited to begin learning how to develop apps for Android.  As I’m just about to get the SDK to run my first “Hello World” app on a the device emulator I got and error: “Failed to allocate memory: 8”.

Editing the virtual Android device settings manually in Android Virtual Device Manager for the device I had named VirtNexus7.

The fix for “Failed to allocate memory: 8”?

On my Windows 7 PC I had to go to: C:\Users\[User Name]\.android\avd\VirtNexus7.avd\Config.ini Edit the config file with a text editor.

In this case I had to change “hw.ramSize=1024” to “hw.ramSize=1024MB”.

Also, to avoid such headaches, I would recommend that you only use the Android Virtual Device Manager’s built-in virtual device presets to build your virtual device.  I’ve never had a problem when I’ve used it create new virtual devices for testing.

Below are the settings from the Config.ini file that I had created manually for the emulated virtual Nexus 7 device:

avd.ini.encoding=ISO-8859-1
hw.dPad=no
hw.lcd.density=213
sdcard.size=1024M
hw.cpu.arch=arm
hw.device.hash=-2113695447
disk.dataPartition.size=300M
hw.gpu.enabled=yes
skin.path=800×1280
skin.dynamic=yes
hw.keyboard=yes
hw.cpu.model=cortex-a8
hw.ramSize=1024
hw.device.manufacturer=Google
hw.sdCard=yes
hw.mainKeys=no
hw.accelerometer=yes
skin.name=800×1280
abi.type=armeabi-v7a
hw.trackBall=no
hw.device.name=Nexus 7
hw.battery=yes
hw.sensors.proximity=no
image.sysdir.1=system-images\android-17\armeabi-v7a\
hw.sensors.orientation=yes
hw.audioInput=yes
hw.camera.front=none
hw.gps=yes
vm.heapSize=32